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Unit 2

     14. Circles Between Strokes.  Where an angle, or a point, is formed at the junction of consonants, the circle goes outside the angle. Observe how the circle joins the strokes in r-a-n and k-a-n:

Ran, Kan

     The straight line begins in the circle, as indicated by the arrows. The dotted line shows the position of the circle in relation to the other strokes. If the page is turned upside down, the word ran will become the word knack.
     Observe how the circle joins in n-a-l and m-e-l:

Nal, Mel

     To accommodate the circle in these joinings, the n and the m are written slightly longer than they would normally be written. The arrow shows how the n is extended in the word nail. The dotted line indicates the position of the circle in relation to the other strokes.

circles between strokes

     15. Where straight strokes and curves join without an angle, or where two similar-motion curves join without an angle, the circle is placed inside the curve. Observe how the circle joins the strokes in r-a-t and t-a-k:

Rat, Tak

     In joinings of this type, the blending of the curve with the straight line should be so smooth that the circle appears to have been inserted afterward. The dotted line shows the position of the circle in relation to the other strokes.

writ, raid, dig, rid, ticket, tag, red, tack, taken, read, take, rattle, rate, deck, riddle

     Practice with the following sentences:


Key: Take the lad to the deck. He is late. The red tag and ticket were at the gate.

     16. Some vowels are so obscure or neutral that they are omitted when they do not contribute to speed or legibility.  For example, the e in the words taken and maker is absolutely useless, and is omitted.  Any vowel which does not contribute to the legibility of an outline may be omitted.  Any vowel which does not contribute to the legibility of and outline may be omitted if its omission gives a more facile outline.

     17. Between straight strokes in the same direction the circle is written with right motion. See the following outlines of m-a-m and d-e-d:

Mam, Ded

     The joining should be so smooth and snug that, if the circle were eliminated, the two straight lines would blend into one stroke. Avoid forming points on the circles in the places indicated by the arrows.

deed, dad, mean, main

     18. Between opposite curves the circle is turned back on the first curve.

wreck, rag, lake, kill

     Observe the outlines of g-a-l and l-a-g:

Gal, Lag

     If the circle were erased, the curves should blend into a continuous stroke. Avoid forming points on the circles in the places indicated by the arrows.

Consonant Combinations

     19. Kr and Gl Combinations.  K and r, and g and l, are equal curves and are made a little flatter than usual when joined, as the following outlines k-r, g-l, and r-k demonstrate:

Kr, Gl, Rk

In these combinations, the curves are rather shallow. They have a wavelike appearance and are very fluent. Kr (or rk) is slightly shorter than the combined length of r and k when standing alone. The same is true of gl (or lg).

kr and gl:  cream, eagle, glen, crane, glee, glare, creed, glean, acre, crate, gleam, maker

     20. Gr and Kl Combinations.  Where curves of unequal length join without an angle, as in the following, note how a distinction in length is positively shown in the following outlines, g-r and k-l.

Gr, Kl

gr and kl:  gray, green, eager, grain, greet, clay, greed, grim, clan

     21. Rk and Lk Combinations.  Since r and k are of equal length, the curves are somewhat flatter, as with kr and gl.  Lk is very infrequent.

ark, dark, mark, milk

     22. The Signs for Th.  The sign for t is curved to express th, thus:

Signs for Th

     As seen in earlier examples, these letters are very small—only about a third of the space between the writing lines. The curve on the left starts outward at the beginning. Consequently, the curve is deep at the beginning and flattens out toward the end. The curve on the right starts on the right then swings upward. There should be no hook at the beginning or the end. The dotted line shows the slant of the strokes. Note the similarity between these curves and their parent stroke, the t.

Signs for th

Brief Forms for Common Words

     23. A comparatively small number of frequently recurring words make up a large part of the English language. As an illustration, ten words—the, of and, to, a, in, that, it, is, I—form one-fourth of the entire written and spoken language.
     The forms for these frequent words are based on a very common method of abbreviation in longhand writing. For example, amt. is written for amount; Rev. for Reverend; gym for gymnasium; ans. for answer; math. for mathematics, and so on. By taking advantage of this method of abbreviation, brief and easily remembered shorthand forms are obtained for the most common words in the language. Some of these brief forms consists of letters you have not yet learned, so do not attempt to learn the new letters until the chapters in which they occur.

brief forms

     *In some phrases they is written the same as the, as in they will.
Note: Refer to the alphabet page for explanation of characters.

24. Business Abbreviations

Business abbreviations

25. Reading and Dictation Practice

Reading and Dictation Practice

Brief Form Drill for this Unit

Transcription Key to this Unit
- Next Unit -

About Gregg Shorthand
Editor's Note
A Talk with the Beginner
The Alphabet
Chapter I
   Unit 1
   Unit 2
   Unit 3
Chapter II
   Unit 4
   Unit 5
   Unit 6
Chapter III
   Unit 7
   Unit 8
   Unit 9
Chapter IV
   Unit 10
   Unit 11
   Unit 12
Chapter V
   Unit 13
   Unit 14
   Unit 15
Chapter VI
   Unit 16
   Unit 17
   Unit 18
Chapter VII
   Unit 19
   Unit 20
   Unit 21
Chapter VIII
   Unit 22
   Unit 23
   Unit 24
Chapter IX
   Unit 25
   Unit 26
   Unit 27
Chapter X
   Unit 28
   Unit 29
   Unit 30
Chapter XI
   Unit 31
   Unit 32
   Unit 33
Chapter XII
   Unit 34
   Unit 35
   Unit 36


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