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Andrew Owen

CHAPTER II

Unit 4

The Downward Characters

     34.  The characters for the consonants in this chapter are derived from another elliptical figure:Vertical ellipse, bisected

Downward characters

     35.  All these character are written downward.  Ch is named chay, and sh is named ish.  The signs for sh and s are very small.  As s is one of the most frequent sounds in the language, two signs are provided for it to facilitate joining in various combinations.  The following memory aids will be useful:

Memory aids.

     Let us have a closer look at the curve strokes left s, p, b, right s, f, and v:

S, P, B; S, F, V

     The dotted line shows the slant of the strokes as well as the relation of the beginning of the outline to the end. The deep part of the curve comes at the end of left s, p, and b; at the beginning of right s, f, and v as indicated by arrows. In your writing, observe very carefully the proportion of these strokes. B and v should span most of the space between the lines, but not all of it. The middle stokes p and f should span about half of the space between the lines. Both strokes for s only span a quarter of the space. Practice the proportions with the following sentences:

Practice Sentences for left-motion curve letters

Key: He put his key by his hat. Will you have Ray get it for Lee? It is getting late.

     Observe how to join a circle to these consonants with b-a, a-v; a-b, v-a:

Ba, Av, Ab, Va

     The a in b-a and a-v is fairly round; in a-b and v-a, it is more of a loop. Be sure that the a joins as indicated by the arrows and does not retrace any part of the consonant. If you turn the page upside down, b-a will look like a-v; a-v, like b-a; a-b, like v-a; and v-a, like a-b.
     Let us examine how to join a circle between same-motion strokes like p and r and between k and f:

Par, Kaf

     The dotted line indicates the relation of the circle to the other strokes. The circle should join so smoothly that if it were removed, the consonants would form a continuous curve. If you have written an accurate outline, when you turn your page upside down, k-a-f will look like p-a-r; p-a-r, like k-a-f.
     Let us examine how to join a circle between opposite-motion strokes like f and r and like f and l:

Far, Fal

     As the a is being completed, it should start to come down before it reaches the f. In other words, the r or l should be started before the circle is completed as indicated by the arrow.
     Let us examine how to join a circle between very acute angles, looking at d-a-sh and sh-a-d:

Dash, Shade

     The vowel here becomes a loop, or a more elongated circle. Both the sh and d are slightly extended in order to accommodate the loop. If you were to turn these outlines upside down, shade would become a perfect copy of dash, and vice versa.

Consonant Combinations

     36.  Many of the consonants follow each other consecutively; for example, r and l frequently follow p, b, as in play, brave.  As skill in writing such combinations is essential to speed and accuracy, the following movement drills should be practiced until fluency is secured.

     37.  Pr and Pl.  In writing pr and pl, start to the left. These combinations are written with one sweep of the pen. At the beginning of these combinations, the hand moves from the right to the left; it does not move immediately down.

Pr and Pl.

     Practice with the following sentences:

Practice Sentences for pr, pl

Key: His helper placed the wrapper in the paper plate. The player will come by plane.

     38.  Br and Bl.  In writing br and bl, start down. These combinations are also written with one sweep of the pen. At the beginning of these combinations, the hand starts immediately down instead of to the left, as pr and pl do.

Br and bl.

     Practice with the following sentences:

Practice sentences

Key: His neighbor teaches members to play bridge. His bridge lesson was brief. He is not able to play well.

     39.  Fr and Fl.  In writing the combinations fr and fl, the angle is rounded to give fluency.  The motion is just the same as in writing a part of the longhand y.

Fr and fl

40.  Frequent-Word Drill

Frequent Word Drill

41.  Brief Forms for Common Words

Brief Forms

     *The sign for the prefix over written above a following character is used to express the word over.

     42.  As a prefix, after is expressed by af.  In compounds, every is expressed by ev.

     43.  The word been following have, has, had is phrased and is expressed by b:

Helping verb phrases

     Note: The h dot in has, had, him, himself, her, and herself may be omitted in fast writing.

44.  Business Abbreviations

Business abbreviations

45.  Reading and Dictation Practice

Reading and Dictation Practice

Brief Form Drill for this unit

Transcription Key to this Unit
- Next Unit -

Preface
About Gregg Shorthand
Editor's Note
A Talk with the Beginner
The Alphabet
Chapter I
   Unit 1
   Unit 2
   Unit 3
Chapter II
   Unit 4
   Unit 5
   Unit 6
Chapter III
   Unit 7
   Unit 8
   Unit 9
Chapter IV
   Unit 10
   Unit 11
   Unit 12
Chapter V
   Unit 13
   Unit 14
   Unit 15
Chapter VI
   Unit 16
   Unit 17
   Unit 18
Chapter VII
   Unit 19
   Unit 20
   Unit 21
Chapter VIII
   Unit 22
   Unit 23
   Unit 24
Chapter IX
   Unit 25
   Unit 26
   Unit 27
Chapter X
   Unit 28
   Unit 29
   Unit 30
Chapter XI
   Unit 31
   Unit 32
   Unit 33
Chapter XII
   Unit 34
   Unit 35
   Unit 36

Index

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