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Andrew Owen

Chapter II

Diphthongs

     6.  Since j is the consonantal form of i, it is written by the small circle.

juna
juna (young)
  jupo
jupo (skirt)
  jolo
jolo (yawl)
 
juro
juro (law)
  juvelo
juvelo (jewel)
  juĝi
jugxi (to judge)
 

     7.  At the beginning of words, je is written by a small loop and ja by a large loop.

je
e (no English equivalent; by, at, on, etc.)
  ja
ja (emphatic yes; indeed)
  jaro
jaro (year)
 
jen
jen (behold)
  jam
jam (already)
  jako
jako (jacket)
 

     8.  If it should be absolutely essential to distinguish between i and j, it is done by placing a small breve underneath the j.

iodo
iodo (iodine)
jodo
jodo (iodine)

     9.  is written as it sounds.  is expressed with a dot under the e to distinguish it from i.

aux (or)
eux
laŭ
laux (according to)
Eŭropo
Euxropo (Europe)
raŭka
rauxka (hoarse)
eŭgeniko
euxgeniko (eugenics)

     10. As a word ending, may be omitted.

ambaŭ
ambaux (both)
apenaŭ
apenaux (hardly)

     11.  When the vowel u comes immediately before another vowel, it can be expressed by a horizontal dash under the vowel.

dua
dua (second)
trotuaro
trotuaro (sidewalk)
Zuavo
Zuavo (Zouave; old French infantry)
nuanco
nuanco (nuance)

     12.  Ia and ea are expressed by a dot within the large circle.

iam
iam
fiasko
fiasko (fiasco, failure)
kreado
kreado (creation)
miasmo
miasmo (miasma; polluted air)

     13.  In word endings the dot is omitted.

mia
mia (my)
alia
alia (other)
genia
genia (ingenious)
nacia
nacia (nation)

     14.  Ie is expressed by a dash under the small circle.

ie
ie (anywhere)
  ĉie
cxie (everywhere)
  mielo
mielo (honey)
 
mieno
mieno (facial expression)
  fiera
fiera (proud)
  biero
biero (beer)
 

     15.  The combination aj is expressed by the broken circle.

Majo
Majo (May)
ajn
ajn (-ever)
najlo
najlo (nail)
fajro
fajro (fire)

     16.  The combinations aje and ajo are expressed by joining the small and the large circles.

krajono
krajono (pencil)
kajero
kajero (notebook)
najado
najado (Naiad, a water nymph)
majoliko
majoliko (Majolica; Italian earthenware)

     This sign is also used for the infrequent combinations ae and ai.

naiva
naiva (naïve)
balais
balais (swept)

     17.  At the beginning of a word, a before another vowel is expressed by a dot.

aero
aero (air)
aorto
aorto (aorta)

     18.  When the combination ej is followed by a consonant, it is sufficient to write the small circle.

hejmo
hejmo (home)
mejlo
mejlo (mile)

     19.  When a vowel follows it (in a few uncommon words), ej may be written the same as aj and distinguished by a dot.

cejano
cejano (corn-bottle)
lernejano
lernejano (scholar, pupil)

     20.  Other vowel combinations are formed by the simple joining of the signs.

boato
boato (boat)
  tieulo
tieulo (the man from there (tie-ulo))
  balaos
balaos (will sweep)
 
fojno
fojno (hay)
  foiro
foiro (fair, market)
  naŭope
nauxope (by nines)
 

     21.  The plural ending oj is written by the stroke over oj or under oj (up), care being taken to join this sign in accordance with the principles of uniform movement.

haroj
haroj (hairs)
  floroj
floroj (flowers)
  ratoj
ratoj (rats)
 
pecoj
pecoj (pieces)
  homoj
homoj (human beings)
  ludoj
ludoj (games)
 

     22.  This ending may be used (when necessary) to form the plural of adjectival wordsigns.  When they are accompanied by a noun, it will not be necessary, as a rule, to express the plural of adjectives.

bela
bela (beautiful)
belaj
belaj (beautiful)
bona
bona (good)
bonaj
bonaj (good)
belaj floroj bela (beautiful) floroj (flowers)    

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Preface
About Gregg Shorthand
Editor's Note
A Talk with the Beginner
The Alphabet
Chapter I
   Unit 1
   Unit 2
   Unit 3
Chapter II
   Unit 4
   Unit 5
   Unit 6
Chapter III
   Unit 7
   Unit 8
   Unit 9
Chapter IV
   Unit 10
   Unit 11
   Unit 12
Chapter V
   Unit 13
   Unit 14
   Unit 15
Chapter VI
   Unit 16
   Unit 17
   Unit 18
Chapter VII
   Unit 19
   Unit 20
   Unit 21
Chapter VIII
   Unit 22
   Unit 23
   Unit 24
Chapter IX
   Unit 25
   Unit 26
   Unit 27
Chapter X
   Unit 28
   Unit 29
   Unit 30
Chapter XI
   Unit 31
   Unit 32
   Unit 33
Chapter XII
   Unit 34
   Unit 35
   Unit 36

Index

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